This is a glossary of terms that are common in Document Imaging.

Terms Definition of Terms
8-bit image A digital image that can include as many as 256 possible colors. Eight bits are allocated for the storage of each pixel.
8-bit color/gray scale In 8-bit color, each pixel has eight bits assigned to it, providing 256 colors or shades of gray, as in a grayscale image.
24-bit color Same as true-color image. Generally refers to 24-bit or better images. In 24 bit color, each pixel has 24 bits assigned to it, representing 16.7 million colors. 8-bits - or one byte - is assigned to each of the red, green, and blue components of a pixel.
24-bit image A digital image that can include as many as 16.7 million possible colors. Twenty-four bits are allocated for the storage of each pixel.
Acquire Moves data into an image-editing application from a PCMCIA card, from an archive folder on your hard disk, or from the dynamic random access memory of a camera connected to a computer without a PCMCIA card. As the image is acquired, the color correction values associated with the current balance selection are applied to the image data.
Alert box Box that appears on screen to give a warning or to report an error message. Sometimes accompanied by a beep.
Active window The window on the desktop where the next action will occur. Horizontal lines in the title bar indicate that the window is the active one.
Alias A duplicate of a file's icon, not of the file itself, indicated by an italicized icon name
Anti-alias PIE function that smoothes the edges of text or reduces the stair-stepping of an image where individual pixels are visible. It gives it a more professionally printed look.
Attended Mode A PIE operating mode. When PIE is in attended mode, it stops the first time it finds an error, prompts you to resolve the error, and starts up again only after you do so. See also Unattended Mode.
Background The color or pattern that sits behind the images in the composite.
Back printing A feature on a printer that can automatically add date, time, or specific text to the backside of the picture.
Bit depth The color depth or pixel values for a digital image. The number of possible colors or shades of gray that can be included in an image.
Brightness Differences in the intensity of light reflected from or transmitted through an image independent of its hue and saturation. It's the value of a pixel in an electronic image, representing its lightness value from black to white. Brightness is usually defined in levels ranging in value from 0 (black) to 255 (white).
Brightness resolution The intensity of light reflected from or transmitted through an image.
Button Button-like, on-screen graphic that appears in dialog and alert boxes and that you click to go ahead with or to cancel an action. See also Mouse Button.
Calibration The act of adjusting the color of one device relative to another, such as a monitor to a printer, or a scanner to a film recorder. Or, it may be the process of adjusting the color of one device to some established standard.
Cancel On-screen button that appears in some boxes. Clicking it cancels the action and closes the box.
Characteristics Features associated with images or text. Examples of image characteristics are contrast, color balance, orientation, and degree of cropping. Examples of text characteristics are style, font, and texture.
Choose To pick a command by dragging through a menu.
Clear An Edit menu command that lets you remove selected material without placing it on the Clipboard. See also Cut.
Click Point to an item and then quickly press and release the mouse button.
Clipboard Areas in which the most recently cut or copied item is temporarily stored. The item on the Clipboard can be pasted into layouts.
CMYK Stands for the three subtractive primary ink colors and black: Cyan, Magenta, and Yellow and blacK.
Color Balance The ability to reproduce the colors of a scene to some acceptable standard.
Command An instruction given to the computer that causes it to perform an action.
Composite See Composite Image.
Composite Editor One of the user interfaces used to create and edit composites.
Composite Image A collection of images, such as a school class, a sports team, or a service item.
Contrast Tonal gradation between the highlights, mid tones, and shadows in an image. High contrast implies dark black and bright white. Medium contrast implies a good spread from black to white, and Low contrast implies a narrow spread of values from black to white.
Control-click Shortcut used to select an image and the associated name.
Control spot A white, 10 x 10 pixel square that appears in the top-left corner of an image when it is first selected. You can change the size of the control spot or create a new one for a specific job.
Copy An Edit menu command you use to copy a selected item to the Clipboard without removing it from its original location. You can then paste the item into the same or other layouts. The Copy command copies only the image filenames (IDs) or people's names. It does not copy image or text characteristics. See also Copy Attributes.
Copy Attributes An Edit menu command you use to remove selected items from their original location and store them on a Clipboard. You can then apply (paste) the characteristics to the images or names in the same or in a different layout.
Crop To size and position an image in order to use a specific portion of the image. It simulates the old method of trimming photographs by hand on a cutting board.
Cursor See Pointer.
Cut An Edit menu command you use to remove selected items from their original location and store them on the Clipboard. You can paste the items to other locations in the same or other composites. The Cut command affects only image filenames (IDs) or people's names. Image or text characteristics do not accompany the names to the new location.
Default A value, action, or setting the computer assumes unless you specify otherwise.
Density Ability of an object to stop or absorb light. The less the light is reflected or transmitted by an object, the higher its density.
Densitometer Tool It measures the amount of light that is reflected or transmitted by an object, and is used to correct color in a composite image. The Densitometer tool 'memorizes' sampled color areas and then matches them to a selected current color.
Deselect To act on, typically by clicking somewhere else, a selected item so that it is no longer selected or highlighted.
Despeckle Remove specks from an image. A despeckle filter actually blurs the entire image, except for the edges.
Dialog box On-screen box that contains a message and that often requests more information. If an ellipsis (...) follows a menu item, a dialog box will always appear next.
Dimmed See grayed out.
Display PIE command that lets you look at composites as they're being assembled.
Dongle A workstation security key.
Double-click Point to an item, then press the mouse button twice rapidly. It's a shortcut or quick way to open folders and to choose items.
Drag The process of moving text, graphics, or photos to different locations in a document. Or it's the way to select items from a list, to select test, and to move items from place to place. Hold down the mouse button as you move the arrow pointer to make your selection.
DRAM Stand for Dynamic Random Access Memory. Images are temporarily stored in the camera's DRAM before being stored on the PCMCIA card.
Edit Menu Standard MACINTOSH menu, similar to other Edit menus. Contains editing commands such as Cut, Paste, Select Group, and so on.
Ellipsis Three dots enclosed in parentheses (...). Menu items followed by an ellipsis require a dialog box.
Error Messages Displayed on screen in an alert box to tell you about an error or problem.
Extension The addition of letters, numbers, etc. that can be attached to the end of an image ID to further identify it from other file names.
File Menu Similar to other program's File menus. The Composite Editor File menu contains commands that affect the entire composite (for example: Open and Save). The PIE File menu contains the commands for controlling the PIE operations (for example: Suspend and Attended).
Fill Feature Composite Editor feature that lets you automatically import as many images as you want from a folder into a composite.
Flush PIE command you use to stop assembling the current composite and to remove it from the job queue.
Font A collection of letters, numbers, and symbols whose design is based on similar characteristics.
Foundation Information that does not change from layer to layer. For example, background color, logos, institutional names.
Frame A scanned image or a special image designed using an image-manipulation application (ADOBE PHOTOSHOP, for example) that looks like a picture frame.
Grayed out Pattern of dots that makes a menu, menu item, option, or icon dimmed out on screen. A grayed out menu, menu item, or other option is not available; a grayed out icon indicates that the icon is already open.
High-resolution version Version of the composite displayed on screen in the PIE window when the composite is being assembled. Shows exactly how the composite will look when it's printed.
Highlight To make an object 'shaded' so that it is distinguished from other objects on a display screen or hard-copy printout.
Histogram A bar graph analysis tool that can be used to identify contrast and dynamic range image problems. Histograms are found in most software programs that are used to manipulate digital images.
I-beam A pointer shaped like a capital I. Used for working with text.
Icon On-screen graphic that represents an object, a concept, or a message.
Image Node A block on the layout where an image or image-related information goes. It can include the background block and the blocks for people's images.
Image Menu Contains commands that affect the images in the composite.
Invert Reverses the way an image looks (makes a positive image into a negative and vice versa). An item on the Maps submenu (Maps is an item on the Image menu).
IPS Image Print Server
ISDN Abbreviation for Integrated Services Digital Network. A telecommunications network where voice, data, and images will be sent and received simultaneously in a single digital form.
Job Menu Contains commands that affect the job file for the composite.
Join Lines Option Feature that lets you specify that people's names appear on one line instead of two.
JPEG An image compression standard developed by the Joint Photographic Experts Group. JPEG has become a standard image compression method allowing for compression ratios of approximately 10:1 before differences can be seen.
JPEG 2000 Officially called ISO 15444, the "JPEG 2000: Image Coding System", it's a standardized format that will expand the ability to manage and transport continuous tone images without noticeable loss of quality.
Justification Position of text relative to the text block that it's in. Text can be left justified, centered, or right justified.
Keyboard Equivalent A combination of keys that you can press instead of using the mouse to perform an action.
Keyboard Shortcut Two or more keys you can press to accomplish an action more efficiently. A keyboard shortcut requires the use of at least one modifier key (the command key or the Option key) to complete the action.
Kiosk A stand alone computerized system that is used to present multimedia information to multiple users. They are usually placed in high traffic areas where many people can access the information that they provide. They can be either interactive or operate automatically.
KODAK Professional Imaging Engine (PIE) The application that works in the background assembling the high-resolution versions of your composites.
KPL Kodak Proprietary Language
Layer Variable items that will change, for example, people's images and names. Layers are like stacks of transparency material that are placed one on top of the other.
Layout An arrangement of image blocks you work with to create your composites. The Composite Editor provides layouts that contain from 10 to 64 images.
Layout Tool A plug-in that provides you with a method for creating templates in which you can place images and text.
Low -resolution version The version of the composite displayed on screen when you're working with the Composite Editor and Preview Images is turned on. It doesn't show special effects such as frames, backgrounds, etc., or what text really looks like. Also, it doesn't let you see the effect of changes you make to image characteristics such as sharpen and blur.
LUT Look Up Table. It's a reference file used to convert images from one color space to another. An example is a look up table for converting RGB pixels into CYMK pixels for printing. It can also be used as a cross-reference table that transforms raw information from a device (such as a scanner), and corrects the values to compensate for differences in device behavior.
Mask A special effect you paste images through so that you can only see part of the images, or so that they blend into the background.
Menu A list of commands or items from which to choose.
Mouse Small, hand-held device you use to control the pointer on the computer screen.
Mouse Button Mechanical button on top of the mouse that you use to perform actions and tasks.
OCP Operator Control Panel
Open To make available.
Option Return Key combination you press to indicate that a new line of text should begin.
Output To translate information from the computer to an external device (for example, a printer).
PCMCIA card Personal Computer Memory Card International Association. The card is used to connect peripherals to computer systems for additional functions.
Permanent Group A group you select when you want to apply a characteristic to, or to edit all the images in the composite. A permanent group is associated with the layout and is always the same. A layout provided by Composite Editor has one permanent group associated with it.
PIE Kodak Professional Imaging Engine. It's an application that works in the background assembling the high-resolution versions of your composites. It sends the composite images or JOBS to output devices. It also acts as a color management tool, and provides automated long roll scanning capability.
Pixel The smallest element of a digitized image. Also, one of the tiny points of light that make up a picture on a computer screen.
Point Move the mouse to place the arrow pointer on an item.
Pointer An arrow or other symbol on the screen that moves as you move the mouse. You use the pointer to choose commands, to indicate where you want to insert text, to move images, and so forth.
Pre-View A user interface for previewing and selecting images; adjusting and correcting images; accepting choices of layout, images, and text; and submitting jobs.
Preview Images Composite Editor mode that lets you see the low-resolution version of the composite you're working on. When editing, for example, Preview Images lets you see color-related changes, cropping changes, and orientation changes. It also lets you see which images you invert. It won't show the background or any special effects (frames, for example).
Progress PIE command that lets you see Imaging Engine's current status.
Recoverable Error The type of error that the operator can resolve.
Retouching Tool A user interface for retouching images; previewing and selecting images; adjusting and correcting images; and submitting jobs.
SAM Service Assembly Module. Used for diagnostic purposes on the HR 500 Film Scanner.
Saturation The amount of gray in a color. More gray means lower saturation; less gray means higher saturation. If a color has no saturation, it is a shade of gray. It's also the degree to which a color is undiluted by white light.
Scanner An electronic device that digitizes and converts photographs, slides, or other two-dimensional images into bit mapped images. Different methods of illumination transmit light through red, green and blue filters and digitize the image into a stream of pixels. Once an image is converted into digital form, it can be stored and manipulated on computers.
SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) A computer connection that is preferred for digital imaging because of its high speed and standard interface.
Select To specify where the next action will occur. You click a screen area or drag through text to select an item. A selected item is usually highlighted.
Shift-click Standard MACINTOSH key combination you can use to select multiple items in Composite Editor layouts.
Show Info Window Area in the layout window where you enter text, and the area which displays information associated with items in the layout pop-up menu.
Shuffle To reorganize a number of items so that they appear in the correct order.
Special Menu Contains miscellaneous commands that are not related to a specific composite.
SQL Standard Query Language used by many programs to manipulate and manage large databases.
Style It's special effects such as boldface, italic, outline, etc. that are applied to text in the Composite Editor.
Suspend The PIE command you use to temporarily stop Imagine Engine operations.
Swap To exchange two items so that each appears where the other was originally.
Tagged Image File Format (TIFF) files The file format that stores digital images. Composite Machine accepts just TIFF Images as input.
Temporary Group A group you set up when you want to apply a characteristic to, or to edit a few images. A temporary group is disbanded when you deselect it.
Text Node The area in the layout where text goes. The large text block contains the composite file; text nodes below the individual image nodes are for people's names.
Text Menu Contains commands for working with text, including the Font, Style, and Justification commands.
Title Bar The bar at the top of a window that shows the name of the window. When the application is active, horizontal lines appear in the title bar.
Tonal resolution The number of levels of gray in a black and white image.
Unattended Mode One of two PIE operating modes. When PIE is in unattended mode and it finds an error in the composite, it will put the composite in the rerun queue. It then continues assembling composites that don't have errors. See also Attended Mode.
Undo Edit menu command that lets you reverse the most recent command you completed.
Watermarks A faint marking on the back of some photographic papers indicating that the picture was taken by a professional photographer.
WYSIWYG What You See Is What You Get. It refers to the ability to output data from computers exactly as it appears on the screen.
Zoom To enlarge or shrink the blocks in a layout in order to see the layout differently.
Zoom buttons Press the top button to enlarge the layout blocks; or press the bottom button to shrink the layout blocks.